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Tissue Cell. 2016 Feb;48(1):43-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Spermatogenesis in the rock oyster, Saccostrea forskali (Gmelin, 1791).

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Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Mahidol University, Nakhonsawan Campus, Nakhonsawan 60130, Thailand.
Department of Anatomy, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, 315 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:


Morphology of the differentiating spermatogenic cells of the rock oyster Saccostrea forskali (Bivalve: Ostreidae) was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. The testis is formed by several branching acini containing developing spermatogenic cells, classified into 7 stages based on nuclear characteristics, patterns of chromatin condensation and cytoplasmic contents. The spermatogonium is characterized by a euchromatic nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. The cytoplasm contains several round granulo-fibrillar dense bodies surrounded by numerous mitochondria. The round nucleus of the primary spermatocyte contains patches of electron-dense heterochromatin, numerous proacrosomal vesicles, ribosomes and mitochondria. The secondary spermatocytes contain a reticulated chromatin pattern and reduced number of proacrosomal vesicles. The early spermatids contain a small amount of euchromatin among dense patches of heterochromatin. A large single acrosomal vesicle is located in the posterior part of the cell. The middle spermatid is characterized by the migration of an acrosomal vesicle to the anterior part of the nucleus. The late spermatids contain highly condensed heterochromatin blocks and the acrosomal vesicle becomes cup-shaped and invaginated at the basal part. The spermatozoon contains a barrel-shaped head covered with the cup-like acrosome. At this stage, the subacrosomal space contains an axial rod in subacrosomal materials. Three to four transverse bands appear at the anterior region of the acrosome. The middle piece consists of spherical mitochondria surrounding the proximal and distal centrioles. The flagellum consists of 9+2 axonemal microtubule doublets surrounded by the plasma membrane. Our electron microscopic study of spermatogenesis in the S. forskali provides important new information on the mechanism of development of spermatogenesis of this species.


Oyster; Spermatogenesis; Testis; Transmission electron microscopy

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