Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Neurosci Res. 2016 Mar;104:72-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2015.12.003. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

The cerebro-cerebellum: Could it be loci of forward models?

Author information

1
Motor Disorders Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan.
2
Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan.
3
Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan.
4
Motor Disorders Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan. Electronic address: kakei-sj@igakuken.or.jp.

Abstract

It is widely accepted that the cerebellum acquires and maintain internal models for motor control. An internal model simulates mapping between a set of causes and effects. There are two candidates of cerebellar internal models, forward models and inverse models. A forward model transforms a motor command into a prediction of the sensory consequences of a movement. In contrast, an inverse model inverts the information flow of the forward model. Despite the clearly different formulations of the two internal models, it is still controversial whether the cerebro-cerebellum, the phylogenetically newer part of the cerebellum, provides inverse models or forward models for voluntary limb movements or other higher brain functions. In this article, we review physiological and morphological evidence that suggests the existence in the cerebro-cerebellum of a forward model for limb movement. We will also discuss how the characteristic input-output organization of the cerebro-cerebellum may contribute to forward models for non-motor higher brain functions.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebro-cerebellum; Forward model; Internal model; Motor control

PMID:
26704591
DOI:
10.1016/j.neures.2015.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center