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PLoS One. 2015 Dec 23;10(12):e0143957. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143957. eCollection 2015.

Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

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Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.


This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments) on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA) to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and fluoride (F) concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pI)HAP, (pK -pI)FAP, and (pK-pI)CaF2) of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers) and surface reflection intensity (SRI) at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline), after a total of 2 min (SH2 min) and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min) erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm). There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN) than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007), but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min). After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium concentration in the solution.

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