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BMC Pediatr. 2015 Dec 24;15:220. doi: 10.1186/s12887-015-0538-x.

Maternal post-natal tobacco use and current parental tobacco use is associated with higher body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Private Bag 7902, Newtown, Wellington, 6242, New Zealand. irene.braithwaite@mrinz.ac.nz.
2
School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. aw.stewart@auckland.ac.nz.
3
Department of Preventive & Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand. bob.hancox@otago.ac.nz.
4
Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Private Bag 7902, Newtown, Wellington, 6242, New Zealand. richard.beasley@mrinz.ac.nz.
5
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. r.murphy@auckland.ac.nz.
6
Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. e.mitchell@auckland.ac.nz.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We investigated whether maternal smoking in the first year of life or any current parental smoking is associated with childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI).

METHODS:

Secondary analysis of data from a multi-centre, multi-country, cross-sectional study (ISAAC Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 years completed questionnaires about their children's current height and weight, whether their mother smoked in the first year of the child's life and current smoking habits of both parents. Adolescents aged 13-14 years completed questionnaires about their height, weight and current parental smoking habits. A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and parental smoking.

RESULTS:

77,192 children (18 countries) and 194 727 adolescents (35 countries) were included. The BMI of children exposed to maternal smoking during their first year of life was 0.11 kg/m(2) greater than those who were not (P = 0.0033). The BMI of children of currently smoking parents was greater than those with non-smoking parents (maternal smoking: +0.08 kg/m(2) (P = 0.0131), paternal smoking: +0.10 kg/m(2) (P < 0.0001)). The BMI of female adolescents exposed to maternal or paternal smoking was 0.23 kg/m(2) and 0.09 kg/m(2) greater respectively than those who were not exposed (P < 0.0001). The BMI of male adolescents was greater with maternal smoking exposure, but not paternal smoking (0.19 kg/m(2), P < 0.0001 and 0.03 kg/m(2), P = 0.14 respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Parental smoking is associated with higher BMI values in children and adolescents. Whether this is due to a direct effect of parental smoking or to confounding cannot be established from this observational study.

PMID:
26699863
PMCID:
PMC4690230
DOI:
10.1186/s12887-015-0538-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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