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Aggress Behav. 2016 Sep;42(5):417-26. doi: 10.1002/ab.21638. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Soccer players awarded one or more red cards exhibit lower 2D:4D ratios.

Author information

1
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de la República (Uruguay), Montevideo, Uruguay.
2
University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
3
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
4
University of Curaçao, Curaçao, Curaçao.
5
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Abstract

Anatomical, cognitive and behavioral sex differences are widely recognized in many species. It has been proposed that some of these differences might result from the organizing effects of prenatal sex steroids. In humans, males usually exhibit higher levels of physical aggression and prowess. In this study, we analyze the relationship between second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios-a proxy for prenatal androgen levels-and foul play and sporting performance in a sample of junior soccer players from a professional Uruguayan soccer club. Our results show that the most aggressive players (i.e., those awarded one or more red cards) have a more masculine finger pattern (lower 2D:4D ratio), while no relationship could be found between sporting performance and 2D:4D ratios. The results are discussed in the context of previous findings. Aggr. Behav. 42:417-426, 2016.

KEYWORDS:

2D:4D; aggressive behavior; prenatal testosterone; soccer; sporting performance

PMID:
26699684
DOI:
10.1002/ab.21638
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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