Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 May-Jun;35(4):326-33. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1048381. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Breakfast Intake and Composition Is Associated with Superior Academic Achievement in Elementary Schoolchildren.

Author information

1
a Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Internal Medicine.
2
c The University of Kansas Medical Center , Kansas City , Kansas.
3
d Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis, and Policy, Texas Tech University , Lubbock , Texas.
4
b Department of Dietetics and Nutrition.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests.

METHODS:

Baseline data were collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age = 7.5 ± 0.6 years) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using 3 components from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Prior to taking the WIAT-III, participants completed a breakfast recall of all foods and drinks consumed that morning, which was analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). WIAT-III scores were compared between breakfast and non-breakfast consumers in a sample (n = 162) matched for age, sex, race, education level of both parents, household income, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness, and Pearson correlations were calculated from all breakfast eaters (n = 617) between test performance and components of the breakfast.

RESULTS:

When compared to non-breakfast consumers, the breakfast consumers had significantly higher scores in all 3 WIAT-III components (all p < 0.05). In breakfast consumers, servings of fruit juice were negatively correlated with reading comprehension and fluency standard score and mathematics standard score (both p < 0.0001), and greater servings of whole grains were significantly related to higher scores in reading comprehension and fluency and mathematics (both p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Both breakfast consumption and the content may be associated with improved standardized test performance in elementary school students.

KEYWORDS:

academic achievement; breakfast; children; diet; elementary school

PMID:
26697955
PMCID:
PMC4896496
DOI:
10.1080/07315724.2015.1048381
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center