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Environ Monit Assess. 2016 Jan;188(1):51. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4850-6. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling.

Author information

1
Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195, Bialystok, Poland.
2
Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195, Bialystok, Poland. M.Jankowska@iorpib.poznan.pl.

Abstract

The effects of washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling on 16 pesticide (ten fungicides and six insecticides) residue levels in raw strawberries were investigated at different processing times (1, 2 and 5 min). An analysis of these pesticides was conducted using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous and electron capture detection (GC-NPD/ECD). The processing factor (PF) for each pesticide in each processing technique was determined. Washing with ozonated water was demonstrated to be more effective (reduction from 36.1 to 75.1 %) than washing with tap water (reduction from 19.8 to 68.1 %). Boiling decreased the residues of the most compounds, with reductions ranging from 42.8 to 92.9 %. Ultrasonic cleaning lowered residues for all analysed pesticides with removal of up to 91.2 %. The data indicated that ultrasonic cleaning and boiling were the most effective treatments for the reduction of 16 pesticide residues in raw strawberries, resulting in a lower health risk exposure. Calculated PFs for alpha-cypermethrin were used to perform an acute risk assessment of dietary exposure. To investigate the relationship between the levels of 16 pesticides in strawberry samples and their physicochemical properties, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

KEYWORDS:

Fungicide and insecticide residues; PCA; Processing; Risk assessment; Strawberries

PMID:
26694708
PMCID:
PMC4688301
DOI:
10.1007/s10661-015-4850-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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