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Expert Rev Neurother. 2016;16(2):131-44. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2016.1135735. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

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a Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , University of Milan , Milan , Italy.
b Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus , University Medical Center Utrecht , Utrecht , The Netherlands.


Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder.


Adults; Amphetamines; Antidepressants; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Efficacy; Lithium; Metadoxine; Pharmacological Treatment

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