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Am J Transplant. 2016 May;16(5):1596-603. doi: 10.1111/ajt.13663. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

C1 Inhibitor in Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection Nonresponsive to Conventional Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

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Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Paris Translational Research Center for Organ Transplantation, INSERM, UMR-S970, Paris, France.
Department of Kidney Transplantation, Necker Hospital, Assitance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Department of Pharmacy, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Department of Pathology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.


Complement inhibitors have not been thoroughly evaluated in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We performed a prospective, single-arm pilot study to investigate the potential effects and safety of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) Berinert added to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of acute ABMR that is nonresponsive to conventional therapy. Kidney recipients with nonresponsive active ABMR and acute allograft dysfunction were enrolled between April 2013 and July 2014 and received C1-INH and IVIG for 6 months (six patients). The primary end point was the change in eGFR at 6 months after inclusion (M+6). Secondary end points included the changes in histology and DSA characteristics and adverse events as evaluated at M+6. All patients showed an improvement in eGFR between inclusion and M+6: from 38.7 ± 17.9 to 45.2 ± 21.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.0277). There was no change in histological features, except a decrease in the C4d deposition rate from 5/6 to 1/6 (p = 0.0455). There was a change in DSA C1q status from 6/6 to 1/6 positive (p = 0.0253). One deep venous thrombosis was observed. In a secondary analysis, C1-INH patients were compared with a similar historical control group (21 patients). C1-INH added to IVIG is safe and may improve allograft function in kidney recipients with nonresponsive acute ABMR.

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