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Korean J Pediatr. 2015 Nov;58(11):427-33. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2015.58.11.427. Epub 2015 Nov 22.

Severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants: maternal and neonatal clinical features.

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Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.



We investigated the vitamin D status of preterm infants to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency.


A total of 278 preterm infants delivered at Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 were enrolled. The serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were measured at birth. We collected maternal and neonatal data such as maternal gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, maternal preeclampsia, birth date, gestational age, and birth weight.


Mean gestational age was 33(+5)±2(+2) weeks of gestation and mean 25-OHD concentrations were 10.7±6.4 ng/mL. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was 91.7%, and 51.1% of preterm infants were classified as having severe vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD<10 ng/mL). The serum 25-OHD concentrations did not correlate with gestational age. There were no significant differences in serum 25-OHD concentrations or incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency among early, moderate, and late preterm infants. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in twin preterm infants was significantly higher than that in singletons (odds ratio, 1.993; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.137-3.494, P=0.016). In the fall, the incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency decreased 0.46 times compared to that in winter (95% CI, 0.227-0.901; P=0.024).


Most of preterm infants (98.9%) had vitamin D insufficiency and half of them were severely vitamin D deficient. Younger gestational age did not increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency, but gestational number was associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.


25-hydroxyvitamin D; Premature infant; Vitamin D

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