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Korean J Pediatr. 2015 Nov;58(11):427-33. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2015.58.11.427. Epub 2015 Nov 22.

Severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants: maternal and neonatal clinical features.

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1
Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We investigated the vitamin D status of preterm infants to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency.

METHODS:

A total of 278 preterm infants delivered at Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 were enrolled. The serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were measured at birth. We collected maternal and neonatal data such as maternal gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, maternal preeclampsia, birth date, gestational age, and birth weight.

RESULTS:

Mean gestational age was 33(+5)±2(+2) weeks of gestation and mean 25-OHD concentrations were 10.7±6.4 ng/mL. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was 91.7%, and 51.1% of preterm infants were classified as having severe vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD<10 ng/mL). The serum 25-OHD concentrations did not correlate with gestational age. There were no significant differences in serum 25-OHD concentrations or incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency among early, moderate, and late preterm infants. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in twin preterm infants was significantly higher than that in singletons (odds ratio, 1.993; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.137-3.494, P=0.016). In the fall, the incidence of severe vitamin D deficiency decreased 0.46 times compared to that in winter (95% CI, 0.227-0.901; P=0.024).

CONCLUSION:

Most of preterm infants (98.9%) had vitamin D insufficiency and half of them were severely vitamin D deficient. Younger gestational age did not increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency, but gestational number was associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; Premature infant; Vitamin D

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