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AIDS. 2016 Jan;30(2):273-91. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000922.

Prevalence of non-HIV cancer risk factors in persons living with HIV/AIDS: a meta-analysis.

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aDivision of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine and Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Policy and Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CaliforniabDepartment of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, ConnecticutcDivision of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CaliforniadDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.*Lesley S. Park and Raúl U. Hernández-Ramírez contributed equally to this article.



The burden of cancer among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is substantial and increasing. We assessed the prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors among adult PLWHA in Western high-income countries since 2000.




We searched PubMed to identify articles published in 2011-2013 reporting prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight/obesity, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PLWHA. We conducted random effects meta-analyses of prevalence for each risk factor, including estimation of overall, sex-specific, and HIV-transmission-group-specific prevalence. We compared prevalence in PLWHA with published prevalence estimates in US adults.


The meta-analysis included 113 publications. Overall summary prevalence estimates were current smoking, 54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49-59%] versus 20-23% in US adults; cervical high-risk HPV infection, 46% (95% CI 34-58%) versus 29% in US females; oral high-risk HPV infection, 16% (95% CI 10-23%) versus 4% in US adults; anal high-risk HPV infection (men who have sex with men), 68% (95% CI 57-79%), with no comparison estimate available; chronic HCV infection, 26% (95% CI 21-30%) versus 0.9% in US adults; and HBV infection, 5% (95% CI 4-5%) versus 0.3% in US adults. Overweight/obesity prevalence (53%; 95% CI 46-59%) was below that of US adults (68%). Meta-analysis of alcohol consumption prevalence was impeded by varying assessment methods. Overall, we observed considerable study heterogeneity in prevalence estimates.


Prevalence of smoking and oncogenic virus infections continues to be extraordinarily high among PLWHA, indicating a vital need for risk factor reduction efforts.

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