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Hepatology. 2016 Jul;64(1):200-8. doi: 10.1002/hep.28414. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

The 3-month readmission rate remains unacceptably high in a large North American cohort of patients with cirrhosis.

Author information

1
Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA.
2
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
3
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
4
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
5
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
6
Yale University, New Haven, CT.
7
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
8
University of Colorado, Denver, CO.
9
Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD.
10
University of Texas, Houston, TX.
11
Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
12
Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.
13
Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Abstract

In smaller single-center studies, patients with cirrhosis are at a high readmission risk, but a multicenter perspective study is lacking. We evaluated the determinants of 3-month readmissions among inpatients with cirrhosis using the prospective 14-center North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease cohort. Patients with cirrhosis hospitalized for nonelective indications provided consent and were followed for 3 months postdischarge. The number of 3-month readmissions and their determinants on index admission and discharge were calculated. We used multivariable logistic regression for all readmissions and for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), renal/metabolic, and infection-related readmissions. A score was developed using admission/discharge variables for the total sample, which was validated on a random half of the total population. Of the 1353 patients enrolled, 1177 were eligible on discharge and 1013 had 3-month outcomes. Readmissions occurred in 53% (n = 535; 316 with one, 219 with two or more), with consistent rates across sites. The leading causes were liver-related (n = 333; HE, renal/metabolic, and infections). Patients with cirrhosis and with worse Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score or diabetes, those taking prophylactic antibiotics, and those with prior HE were more likely to be readmitted. The admission model included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and diabetes (c-statistic = 0.64, after split-validation 0.65). The discharge model included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, proton pump inhibitor use, and lower length of stay (c-statistic = 0.65, after split-validation 0.70). Thirty percent of readmissions could not be predicted. Patients with liver-related readmissions consistently had index-stay nosocomial infections as a predictor for HE, renal/metabolic, and infection-associated readmissions (odds ratio = 1.9-3.0).

CONCLUSIONS:

Three-month readmissions occurred in about half of discharged patients with cirrhosis, which were associated with cirrhosis severity, diabetes, and nosocomial infections; close monitoring of patients with advanced cirrhosis and prevention of nosocomial infections could reduce this burden. (Hepatology 2016;64:200-208).

PMID:
26690389
PMCID:
PMC4700508
DOI:
10.1002/hep.28414
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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