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Cryobiology. 2016 Apr;72(2):169-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.12.001. Epub 2015 Dec 12.

The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation.

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Organ Preservation Alliance, NASA Research Park Bldg. 20, S. Akron Road, Moffett Field, CA, USA; Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
Tissue Testing Technologies LLC, North Charleston, SC, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, SC, USA.
21st Century Medicine, Inc., Fontana, CA, USA.
UCL Medical School/Royal Free Hospital, Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital Campus, London, UK.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Society for Cryobiology, USA; Cook Regentec, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Society for Cryobiology, USA; Centre for Innovation, Canadian Blood Services, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Organ Preservation Alliance, NASA Research Park Bldg. 20, S. Akron Road, Moffett Field, CA, USA; Sylvatica Biotech Inc., Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:


The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents.


Antifreeze proteins; Chilling injury; Cryobanking; Cryomacroscopy; Cryoprotectant screening; Cryoprotectant toxicity; Devitrification; Freeze tolerance; Ice binding proteins; Ischemia; Ischemic preconditioning; Nanoparticle warming; Organ banking; Organ preservation; Organ transplantation; Perfusion; Persufflation; Thermo-mechanical stress; Vitrification

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