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Addict Behav. 2017 Jan;64:275-280. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.11.013. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use.

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Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain 10, Place du Cardinal Mercier, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address:


Research into smartphone addiction has followed the scientific literature on problematic mobile phone use developed during the last decade, with valid screening scales being developed to identify maladaptive behaviour associated with this technology, usually in adolescent populations. This study adapts the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale [SAS-SV] into Spanish and into French. The aim of the study was to (i) examine the scale's psychometric properties in both languages, (ii) estimate the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use among Spanish and Belgian adults, and (iii) compare the addictive symptomatology measured by the SAS-SV between potentially excessive users from both countries. Data were collected via online surveys administered to 281 and 144 voluntary participants from both countries respectively, aged over 18years and recruited from academic environments. Results indicated that the reliability was excellent (i.e., Cronbach alphas: Spain: .88 and Belgium: .90), and the validity was very good (e.g., unifactoriality with a 49% and 54% of variance explained through explorative factor analysis, respectively). Findings showed that the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use 12.5% for Spanish and 21.5% for francophone Belgians. The scale showed that at least 60% of excessive users endorsed withdrawal and tolerance symptoms in both countries, although the proposed addictive symptomatology did not cover the entire group of estimated excessive users and cultural differences appeared. This first cross-cultural study discusses the smartphone excessive use construct from its addictive pathway.


Cross-cultural research; French adaptation; Problematic mobile phone use; Smartphone addiction; Spanish adaptation

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