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Immunol Rev. 2016 Jan;269(1):44-59. doi: 10.1111/imr.12376.

Apoptotic cell recognition receptors and scavenger receptors.

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, Center for Cell Clearance, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.


Phosphatidylserine recognition receptors are a highly diverse set of receptors grouped by their ability to recognize the 'eat-me' signal phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. Most of the phosphatidylserine recognition receptors dampen inflammation by inducing the production of anti-inflammatory mediators during the phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses. However, many phosphatidylserine receptors are also capable of recognizing other ligands, with some receptors being categorized as scavenger receptors. It is now appreciated that these receptors can elicit different downstream events for particular ligands. Therefore, how phosphatidylserine recognition receptors mediate specific signals during recognition of apoptotic cells versus other ligands, and how this might help regulate the inflammatory state of a tissue is an important question that is not fully understood. Here, we revisit the work on signaling downstream of the phosphatidylserine recognition receptor BAI1, and evaluate how these and other signaling modules mediate signaling downstream from other receptors, including Stabilin-2, MerTK, and αvβ5. We also propose the concept that phosphatidylserine recognition receptors could be viewed as a subset of scavenger receptors that are capable of eliciting anti-inflammatory responses to apoptotic cells.


BAI1; apoptosis; apoptotic cells; phosphatidylserine; scavenger receptors; signaling

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