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Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Nov 25;6(Suppl 25):S628-32. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.170464. eCollection 2015.

Cranial and spinal leptomeningeal dissemination in esthesioneuroblastoma: Two reports of distant central nervous system metastasis and rationale for treatment.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California 92354, USA.



Esthesioneuroblastoma is a locally aggressive cancer of the nasal cavity. While systemic metastasis can occur in 10-30% of patients, there are only six reported cases of distal metastasis from leptomeningeal dissemination.


The authors report two cases of esthesioneuroblastoma treated previously with multimodal therapy in which distal metastatic recurrence was found and describe their treatment protocol, which has resulted in long-term success.


Understanding the drivers of leptomeningeal dissemination in more prevalent primary neuroectodermal tumors may hold the key to developing successful treatment algorithms for this disease.


Carcinomatosis; chemotherapy; esthesioneuroblastoma; leptomeningeal dissemination; olfactory neuroblastoma; primary neuroectodermal tumor; radiation; surgery

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