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Nat Immunol. 2016 Jan;17(1):34-40. doi: 10.1038/ni.3324.

New insights into the multidimensional concept of macrophage ontogeny, activation and function.

Author information

1
Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore.
2
Genomics &Immunoregulation, LIMES (Life &Medical Sciences) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
3
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn, Germany.
4
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
5
Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
6
Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
7
ImmunologĂ­a de Trasplantes, Centro Nacional de MicrobiologĂ­a, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Macrophages have protective roles in immunity to pathogens, tissue development, homeostasis and repair following damage. Maladaptive immunity and inflammation provoke changes in macrophage function that are causative of disease. Despite a historical wealth of knowledge about macrophages, recent advances have revealed unknown aspects of their development and function. Following development, macrophages are activated by diverse signals. Such tissue microenvironmental signals together with epigenetic changes influence macrophage development, activation and functional diversity, with consequences in disease and homeostasis. We discuss here how recent discoveries in these areas have led to a multidimensional concept of macrophage ontogeny, activation and function. In connection with this, we also discuss how technical advances facilitate a new roadmap for the isolation and analysis of macrophages at high resolution.

PMID:
26681460
DOI:
10.1038/ni.3324
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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