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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1989 Apr;67(4):382-93.

Energy balance and diabetes. The effects of cold exposure, exercise training, and diet composition on glucose tolerance and glucose metabolism in rat peripheral tissues.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, Laval University Medical School, Qu├ębec, Canada.

Abstract

The effects of cold exposure, exercise training, and diet (high fat versus high carbohydrate) on glucose tolerance and glucose metabolism in rat peripheral tissues will be briefly reviewed. Stimulation of energy expenditure by cold exposure (4 degrees C) or exercise training generally leads to decreased plasma insulin levels and to an improvement in glucose tolerance, suggesting that insulin action on peripheral tissues is increased when energy expenditure is stimulated. On the contrary, feeding high-fat diets to sedentary rats living in the warm (25 degrees C) induces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance resulting in a marked deterioration of glucose tolerance. Nevertheless, cold exposure reverses the diabetogenic effects of high-fat feeding, demonstrating that nutrition-induced insulin resistance is amplified in sedentary animals living at temperatures close to thermoneutrality. Radioactive tracer studies of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in peripheral tissues revealed that cold exposure synergistically potentiates the effects of insulin on glucose uptake in skeletal muscles as well as in white and brown adipose tissues. However, more recent data showed that cold exposure improves glucose tolerance and stimulates glucose uptake in starved animals (ie., in the virtual absence of circulating insulin) nearly by the same order of magnitude as in fed animals. It is therefore concluded that cold exposure, and possibly also exercise, improve glucose tolerance and stimulate glucose uptake in peripheral tissues primarily by enhancing glucose oxidation via insulin-independent pathways, and secondarily by increasing the responsiveness of peripheral tissues to insulin.

PMID:
2667731
DOI:
10.1139/y89-062
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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