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J Hum Genet. 2016 Apr;61(4):329-34. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2015.153. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Individual risk alleles of susceptibility to schizophrenia are associated with poor clinical and social outcomes.

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Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
Department of Epidemiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Aichi, Japan.


Many patients with schizophrenia have poor clinical and social outcomes. Some risk alleles closely related to the onset of schizophrenia have been reported to be associated with their clinical phenotypes, but the direct relationship between genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia and clinical/social outcomes of schizophrenia, as evaluated by both practical clinical scales and 'real-world' function, has not been investigated. We evaluated the clinical and social outcomes of 455 Japanese patients with schizophrenia by severity of illness according to the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and social outcomes by social adjustment/maladjustment at 5 years after the first visit. We examined whether 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from a Japanese genome-wide association study of susceptibility to schizophrenia were associated with clinical and social outcomes. We also investigated the polygenic risk scores of 46 SNPs. Allele-wise association analysis detected three SNPs, including rs2623659 in the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene, associated with severity of illness at end point. The severity of illness at end point was associated with treatment response, but not with the severity of illness at baseline. Three SNPs, including rs2294424 in the C6orf105 gene, were associated with social outcomes. Point estimates of odds ratios showed positive relationships between polygenic risk scores and clinical/social outcomes; however, the results were not statistically significant. Because these results are exploratory, we need to replicate them with a larger sample in a future study.

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