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J Affect Disord. 2016 Feb;191:209-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.017. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Peripheral sub-inflammation is associated with antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia. Results from the multi-center FACE-SZ data set.

Author information

1
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; INSERM U955, Translational Psychiatry team, Créteil, France, Paris Est University, DHU Pe-PSY, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Hôpitaux Universitaires H Mondor, Créteil, France.
2
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 1136, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, INSERM, F-75013, Paris, France.
3
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Centre Hospitalier Charles Perrens, Université de Bordeaux, F-33076 Bordeaux, France; Inserm, Neurocentre Magendie, Physiopathologie de la Plasticité Neuronale, U862, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.
4
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
5
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie Adulte, Hôpital la Colombière, CHRU Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, Inserm 1061, Montpellier, France.
6
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; CMP B, CHU, EA 7280 Faculté de Médecine, Université d'Auvergne, BP 69 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 1, France.
7
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1/Centre Hospitalier Le Vinatier Pole Est BP 300 39 - 95 bd Pinel - 69678 BRON Cedex, France.
8
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; AP-HP, Department of Psychiatry, Louis Mourier Hospital, Colombes, Inserm U894, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de médecine, France.
9
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Centre Référent de Réhabilitation Psychosociale, CH Alpes Isère, Grenoble, France.
10
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), pôle universitaire de psychiatrie, Marseille, France.
11
Bordeaux Sleep Clinique, Pellegrin University Hospital, Bordeaux University, USR CNRS 3413 SANPSY, Research Unit, 33000 Bordeaux, France.
12
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Centre Hospitalier Charles Perrens, Université de Bordeaux, F-33076 Bordeaux, France; CNRS UMR 5287-INCIA, France.
13
Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Service de psychiatrie d'adulte, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles, France.
14
Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The relation between C-Reactive Protein (CRP), depression and antidepressant consumption has been well explored in major depressive disorders but not in schizophrenia, which has a high rate of depression comorbidity. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the prevalence of abnormal CRP levels, depression and antidepressant consumption in a multicenter community-dwelling sample of subjects with schizophrenia (ii) to determine the association between abnormal CRP levels, depression and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia.

METHOD:

219 stable patients with schizophrenia (mean age=31.6 years, 75.3% male gender) were systematically included in the multicentre network of FondaMental Expert Center for schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) and assessed with a dedicated electronic medical record including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Calgary Depression Scale for depression. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was measured with an assay using nephelometry (Dade Behring). Abnormal CRP level was defined by levels >3mg/L. Current medication was recorded.

RESULTS:

Overall, 63 subjects (28.8%) were found to have abnormal CRP levels, 43 (20.1%) received a diagnosis of comorbid current depression, and 51 (31.9%) had ongoing antidepressant treatment. In univariate analysis, abnormal CRP levels were found to be significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001), hypertriglyceridemia (p=0.0015), high waist circumference (p<0.0001), metabolic syndrome (p=0.0011), abdominal obesity (p<0.0001) and with antidepressant consumption (p=0.01), while depression, psychotic symptomatology, age of onset, illness duration, sociodemographic characteristics, current tobacco or cannabis status, hypertension or high fasting glucose were not (all p>0.05). In a multivariate model, abnormal CRP was associated with antidepressant consumption independently of other confounding variables (adjusted Odds Ratio=2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.62). Metabolic syndrome was also independently associated with abnormal CRP (adjusted Odds Ratio=2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.01-6.71).

CONCLUSION:

Abnormal CRP levels in schizophrenia were found to be associated with antidepressant consumption, but not with depression. The potential mechanisms were discussed. Antidepressant consumption should be systematically recorded in future studies exploring inflammation in schizophrenia. Future clinical trials of interventions directed at lowering the level of CRP and other inflammatory markers are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Abdominal obesity; Antidepressant; C-reactive protein (CRP); Depression; Metabolic syndrome; Schizophrenia

PMID:
26674214
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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