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Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016 Mar;23(3):161-70. doi: 10.1530/ERC-15-0478. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

GHRH excess and blockade in X-LAG syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of EndocrinologyCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumDepartment of Human GeneticsCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumPediatric Endocrinology UnitUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumCliniques Universitaires Saint Luc and Department of PathologyUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAPHM, Hôpital la Conception, 13385, Marseille, FranceAix Marseille UniversitéCRNS, CRN2M-UMR 7286, 13344, Marseille, FranceSection on Endocrinology and GeneticsProgram on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics (PDEGEN) and Pediatric Endocrinology Inter-institute Training Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USALaboratoire d'Hormonologie - CBPEGroupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 bd Pinel - 69677 Bron Cedex, FranceUniversité Catholique de LouvainPole d'endocrinologie, diabete et nutrition (EDIN), Brussels, BelgiumDepartment of NeurosurgeryUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium albert.beckers@chu.ulg.ac.be.
2
Department of EndocrinologyCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumDepartment of Human GeneticsCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumPediatric Endocrinology UnitUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumCliniques Universitaires Saint Luc and Department of PathologyUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAPHM, Hôpital la Conception, 13385, Marseille, FranceAix Marseille UniversitéCRNS, CRN2M-UMR 7286, 13344, Marseille, FranceSection on Endocrinology and GeneticsProgram on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics (PDEGEN) and Pediatric Endocrinology Inter-institute Training Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USALaboratoire d'Hormonologie - CBPEGroupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 bd Pinel - 69677 Bron Cedex, FranceUniversité Catholique de LouvainPole d'endocrinologie, diabete et nutrition (EDIN), Brussels, BelgiumDepartment of NeurosurgeryUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
3
Department of EndocrinologyCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumDepartment of Human GeneticsCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumPediatric Endocrinology UnitUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumCliniques Universitaires Saint Luc and Department of PathologyUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAPHM, Hôpital la Conception, 13385, Marseille, FranceAix Marseille UniversitéCRNS, CRN2M-UMR 7286, 13344, Marseille, FranceSection on Endocrinology and GeneticsProgram on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics (PDEGEN) and Pediatric Endocrinology Inter-institute Training Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USALaboratoire d'Hormonologie - CBPEGroupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 59 bd Pinel - 69677 Bron Cedex, FranceUniversité Catholique de LouvainPole d'endocrinologie, diabete et nutrition (EDIN), Brussels, BelgiumDepartment of NeurosurgeryUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium Department of EndocrinologyCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumDepartment of Human GeneticsCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, BelgiumPediatric Endocrinology UnitUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumCliniques Universitaires Saint Luc and Department of PathologyUniversité Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, BelgiumLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAPHM, Hôpital la Conception, 13385, Marseille, FranceAix Marseille UniversitéCRNS, CRN2M-

Abstract

X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated GH and prolactin secretion by mixed pituitary adenomas/hyperplasia. Microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 including the GPR101 gene cause X-LAG syndrome. In individual cases random GHRH levels have been elevated. We performed a series of hormonal profiles in a young female sporadic X-LAG syndrome patient and subsequently undertook in vitro studies of primary pituitary tumor culture following neurosurgical resection. The patient demonstrated consistently elevated circulating GHRH levels throughout preoperative testing, which was accompanied by marked GH and prolactin hypersecretion; GH demonstrated a paradoxical increase following TRH administration. In vitro, the pituitary cells showed baseline GH and prolactin release that was further stimulated by GHRH administration. Co-incubation with GHRH and the GHRH receptor antagonist, acetyl-(d-Arg(2))-GHRH (1-29) amide, blocked the GHRH-induced GH stimulation; the GHRH receptor antagonist alone significantly reduced GH release. Pasireotide, but not octreotide, inhibited GH secretion. A ghrelin receptor agonist and an inverse agonist led to modest, statistically significant increases and decreases in GH secretion, respectively. GHRH hypersecretion can accompany the pituitary abnormalities seen in X-LAG syndrome. These data suggest that the pathology of X-LAG syndrome may include hypothalamic dysregulation of GHRH secretion, which is in keeping with localization of GPR101 in the hypothalamus. Therapeutic blockade of GHRH secretion could represent a way to target the marked hormonal hypersecretion and overgrowth that characterizes X-LAG syndrome.

KEYWORDS:

GHRH; GPR101; gigantism; growth hormone; pituitary

PMID:
26671997
DOI:
10.1530/ERC-15-0478
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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