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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 14;60(3):1401-10. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01956-15.

Defining Clinical Exposures of Cefepime for Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections That Are Associated with Improved Survival.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, Illinois, USA Department of Pharmacy, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
2
Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
3
Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
4
Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Latham, New York, USA.
5
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York, USA.
6
Midwestern University, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, Illinois, USA.
7
University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA Laboratory of Applied Pharmacokinetics and Bioinformatics (LAPKB), The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
8
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, Illinois, USA Department of Pharmacy, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA mschee@midwestern.edu.

Abstract

The percentage of time that free drug concentrations remain above the MIC (fT>MIC) that is necessary to prevent mortality among cefepime-treated patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSI) is poorly defined. We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients with GNBSI. Eligible cases were frequency matched to ensure categorical representation from all MICs. Organism, MIC, infection source, gender, age, serum creatinine, weight, antibiotic history, and modified APACHE II score were collected from hospital records. Two population pharmacokinetic models (models 1 and 2) were used to impute exposures over the first 24 h in each patient from mean model parameters, covariates, and dosing history. From the imputed exposures, survival thresholds for fT>MIC were identified using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and analyzed as nominal variables for univariate and multivariate regressions. A total of 180 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 13.9% died and 86.1% survived. Many patients (46.7% [n = 84/180]) received combination therapy with cefepime. Survivors had higher mean (standard deviation [SD]) fT>MIC than those who died (model 1, 74.2% [29.6%] versus 52.1% [33.8%], P < 0.001; model 2, 85.9% [24.0%] versus 64.4% [31.4%], P < 0.001). CART identified fT>MIC threshold values for greater survival according to models 1 and 2 at >68% and >74%, respectively. Survival was improved for those with fT>MIC of >68% (model 1 adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 26.7; P = 0.004) and >74% (model 2 aOR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.90 to 22.1) after controlling for clinical covariates. Similarly, each 1% increase in cefepime fT>MIC resulted in a 2% improvement in multivariate survival probability (P = 0.015). Achieving a cefepime fT>MIC of 68 to 74% was associated with a higher odds of survival for patients with GNBSI. Regimens targeting this exposure should be aggressively pursued.

PMID:
26666929
PMCID:
PMC4775983
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.01956-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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