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J Res Med Sci. 2015 Aug;20(8):721-6. doi: 10.4103/1735-1995.168273.

Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial.

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Department of Cardiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight.


This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance.


Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001).


This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.


Childhood obesity; Citrus fruits; endothelial function; prevention

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