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J Sep Sci. 2016 Mar;39(5):918-22. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201501008. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Development of a carbon-nanoparticle-coated stirrer for stir bar sorptive extraction by a simple carbon deposition in flame.

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Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong (University of Jinan), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, China.


Stir bar sorptive extraction is an environmentally friendly microextraction technique based on a stir bar with various sorbents. A commercial stirrer is a good support, but it has not been used in stir bar sorptive extraction due to difficult modification. A stirrer was modified with carbon nanoparticles by a simple carbon deposition process in flame and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. A three-dimensional porous coating was formed with carbon nanoparticles. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, the stir bar was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Conditions including extraction time and temperature, ionic strength, and desorption solvent were investigated by a factor-by-factor optimization method. The established method exhibited good linearity (0.01-10 μg/L) and low limits of quantification (0.01 μg/L). It was applied to detect model analytes in environmental water samples. No analyte was detected in river water, and five analytes were quantified in rain water. The recoveries of five analytes in two samples with spiked at 2 μg/L were in the range of 92.2-106% and 93.4-108%, respectively. The results indicated that the carbon nanoparticle-coated stirrer was an efficient stir bar for extraction analysis of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.


Carbon nanoparticles; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Stir bar sorptive extraction


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