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Am J Hematol. 2016 Mar;91(3):295-301. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24268.

Suppression of the noninvolved pair of the myeloma isotype correlates with poor survival in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients with myeloma.

Author information

1
Wilhelminen Cancer Research Institute, C/O Department of Medicine I, Center of Oncology, Hematology with Outpatient Department and Palliative Care, Wilheminenhospital, Vienna, Austria.
2
FH Campus Vienna, University of Applied Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
3
The Binding Site Group, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
4
Department of Medicine I, Center of Oncology, Hematology with Outpatient Department and Palliative Care, Wilheminenhospital, Vienna, Austria.
5
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Wilhelminenhospital, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

Heavy light chain (HLC) assays allow precise measurement of the monoclonal and of the noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulins of the same isotype as the M-protein (e.g., monoclonal IgAκ and polyclonal IgAλ in case of an IgAκ myeloma), which was not possible before. The noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulin is termed 'HLC-matched pair'. We investigated the impact of the suppression of the HLC-matched pair on outcome in 203 patients with multiple myeloma, a phenomenon that likely reflects the host's attempt to control the myeloma clone. Severe (>50%) HLC-matched pair suppression was identified in 54.5% of the 156 newly diagnosed patients and was associated with significantly shorter survival (45.4 vs. 71.9 months, P = 0.019). This correlation was statistically significant in IgG patients (46.4 vs. 105.1 months, P = 0.017), but not in patients with IgA myelomas (32.9 vs. 54.1 months, P = 0.498). At best response, HLC-matched pair suppression improved only in patients with ≥VGPR, indicating partial or complete humoral immune reconstitution during remission in those with excellent response. Severe HLC-matched pair suppression retained its prognostic impact also during follow-up after first response. In the 47 pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory disease, a similar correlation between severe HLC suppression and survival was noted (22.8 vs. not reached, P = 0.028). Suppression of the polyclonal immunoglobulins of the other isotypes than the myeloma protein correlated neither with HLC-matched pair suppression, nor with outcome. Multivariate analysis identified severe HLC-matched pair suppression as independent risk factor for shorter survival, highlighting the impact of isotype specific immune dysregulation on outcome in multiple myeloma.

PMID:
26662888
PMCID:
PMC4832268
DOI:
10.1002/ajh.24268
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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