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Blood. 2016 Jan 7;127(1):53-61. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-08-604520. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

An update of current treatments for adult acute myeloid leukemia.

Author information

1
Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France; Leukemia Translational Laboratory, EA3518, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; and.
2
Leukemia Translational Laboratory, EA3518, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; and Department of Hematology, Hôpital Avicenne, AP-HP, Bobigny, France.

Abstract

Recent advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biology and its genetic landscape should ultimately lead to more subset-specific AML therapies, ideally tailored to each patient's disease. Although a growing number of distinct AML subsets have been increasingly characterized, patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. If one excludes acute promyelocytic leukemia, current AML management still relies largely on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), at least in younger patients who can tolerate such intensive treatments. Nevertheless, progress has been made, notably in terms of standard drug dose intensification and safer allogeneic HSCT procedures, allowing a larger proportion of patients to achieve durable remission. In addition, improved identification of patients at relatively low risk of relapse should limit their undue exposure to the risks of HSCT in first remission. The role of new effective agents, such as purine analogs or gemtuzumab ozogamicin, is still under investigation, whereas promising new targeted agents are under clinical development. In contrast, minimal advances have been made for patients unable to tolerate intensive treatment, mostly representing older patients. The availability of hypomethylating agents likely represents an encouraging first step for this latter population, and it is hoped will allow for more efficient combinations with novel agents.

PMID:
26660429
PMCID:
PMC4705610
DOI:
10.1182/blood-2015-08-604520
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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