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Acta Neuropathol. 2016 Feb;131(2):159-184. doi: 10.1007/s00401-015-1511-3. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Neurotropic virus infections as the cause of immediate and delayed neuropathology.

Author information

1
Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.
2
Department of Virology, Central Veterinary Institute, Part of Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Giessen, Germany.
4
Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.
5
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.
6
German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg, Germany.
7
Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
8
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
9
Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
10
Wellcome Trust Liverpool Glasgow Centre for Global Health Research, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
11
NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging Infection and Zoonoses, Liverpool, UK.
12
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.
13
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
14
Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
15
Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
16
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.
17
Artemis One Health, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
18
Center of Systems Neuroscience, Hannover, Germany.
19
Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany. albert.osterhaus@tiho-hannover.de.
20
Artemis One Health, Utrecht, The Netherlands. albert.osterhaus@tiho-hannover.de.
21
Center of Systems Neuroscience, Hannover, Germany. albert.osterhaus@tiho-hannover.de.

Abstract

A wide range of viruses from different virus families in different geographical areas, may cause immediate or delayed neuropathological changes and neurological manifestations in humans and animals. Infection by neurotropic viruses as well as the resulting immune response can irreversibly disrupt the complex structural and functional architecture of the central nervous system, frequently leaving the patient or affected animal with a poor or fatal prognosis. Mechanisms that govern neuropathogenesis and immunopathogenesis of viral infections are highlighted, using examples of well-studied virus infections that are associated with these alterations in different populations throughout the world. A better understanding of the molecular, epidemiological and biological characteristics of these infections and in particular of mechanisms that underlie their clinical manifestations may be expected to provide tools for the development of more effective intervention strategies and treatment regimens.

KEYWORDS:

Alphavirus; Bornavirus; Bunyavirus; Central nervous system; Flavivirus; Herpesvirus; Influenza virus; Neuroinfectiology; Neuropathology; Paramyxovirus; Picornavirus; Rhabdovirus; Virus infection

PMID:
26659576
PMCID:
PMC4713712
DOI:
10.1007/s00401-015-1511-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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