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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;879:91-105. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24738-0_5.

Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

Author information

1
Department of Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy. chiariot@unina.it.
2
Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale IEOS, C.N.R., EPIGEN Laboratories, Naples, Italy. chiariot@unina.it.
3
Department of Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
4
Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale IEOS, C.N.R., EPIGEN Laboratories, Naples, Italy.
5
Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale IEOS, C.N.R., EPIGEN Laboratories, Naples, Italy. frlembo@unina.it.
6
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy. frlembo@unina.it.

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types.

KEYWORDS:

Epigenetic memory; High-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation; Histone deacetylases; Histone modifications; Immunological imprinting; Inflammatory response; Innate immune cells; Lipid A

PMID:
26659265
DOI:
10.1007/978-3-319-24738-0_5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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