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Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 15;145(Pt B):389-408. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.057. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.

Author information

1
Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Institute for Neuroimaging & Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Marina del Rey 90292, USA; Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, Psychiatry, and Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego 92093, CA, USA.
2
NORMENT-KG Jebsen Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo 0315, Norway; NORMENT-KG Jebsen Centre, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo 0315, Norway.
3
Donders Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Departments of Psychiatry, Human Genetics & Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Dept. of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
5
Department of Anatomy & Neurosciences, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center (VUMC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU/VUMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
6
Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht 3584 CX, The Netherlands.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.
8
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands; Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
9
N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkin str. 3, Moscow 119991, Russia.
10
National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Bethesda 20892, USA; Neuroimaging & Cognitive Genomics Centre (NICOG), Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, NCBES Galway Neuroscience Centre, College of Medicine Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, H91 TK33 Galway, Ireland.
11
Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
12
Department of Psychological Medicine and Psychiatry, Section of Addiction, King's College London, University of London, UK.
13
Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, Psychiatry, and Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0841, USA.
14
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.
15
Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Institute for Neuroimaging & Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Marina del Rey 90292, USA.
16
MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK.
17
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King׳s College London, UK; Clinical Neuroscience Studies (CNS) Center, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
18
Neuroimaging and Cognitive Genomics center (NICOG), School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
19
Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
20
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
21
Clinical Neuroscience Studies (CNS) Center, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
22
Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
23
Department of Statistics, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
24
Psychiatry Department, University of Vermont, VT, USA.
25
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA; Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Hartford, CT 06114, USA.
26
Department of Psychiatry, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS Hospital, Stralsund 18435, Germany.
27
Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands; International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands.
28
Molecular Research Center for Children's Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Japan.
29
Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
30
Department of Radiology University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany.
31
Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
32
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
33
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, USA.
34
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401, VT, USA.
35
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia.
36
Groupe d'imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR5296 CNRS CEA Université de Bordeaux, France.
37
Neuroimaging & Cognitive Genomics Centre (NICOG), Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, NCBES Galway Neuroscience Centre, College of Medicine Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, H91 TK33 Galway, Ireland.
38
Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, NC 27710, USA.
39
Department of Statistics & WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.
40
Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, ON, Canada; Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Child Mind Institute, NY, USA.
41
The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Departments of Physiology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
42
Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center (VUMC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU/VUMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
43
Center for Neuroimaging, Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 W. 16th Street, Suite 4100, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 W. 16th Street, Suite 4100, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
44
Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK and Epilepsy Society, Bucks, UK.
45
Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU/VUMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
46
Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
47
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; MRC Research Unit on Anxiety & Stress Disorders, South Africa.
48
Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Institute for Neuroimaging & Informatics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Marina del Rey 90292, USA; Neurogenetics Program, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90095, USA.
49
Institut Pasteur, Paris, 75015, France.
50
Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA.
51
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617, USA.
52
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
53
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, CCM, Berlin 10117, Germany.
54
School of Computing, Informatics and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, AZ 85281, USA.
55
Brain Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK; Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.
56
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.
57
Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Abstract

In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu) - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others1, ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far.

PMID:
26658930
PMCID:
PMC4893347
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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