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Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016 Apr;64(2):111-26. doi: 10.1007/s00005-015-0377-3. Epub 2015 Dec 12.

Inflammaging and Anti-Inflammaging: The Role of Cytokines in Extreme Longevity.

Author information

1
Unit and School of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
2
Unit and School of Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125, Messina, Italy. catalanoa@unime.it.
3
Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
4
Unit and School of Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125, Messina, Italy.
5
Unit For Metabolic Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, King's College London, London, UK.

Abstract

Longevity and aging are two sides of the same coin, as they both derive from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Aging is a complex, dynamic biological process characterized by continuous remodeling. One of the most recent theories on aging focuses on immune response, and takes into consideration the activation of subclinical, chronic low-grade inflammation which occurs with aging, named "inflammaging". Long-lived people, especially centenarians, seem to cope with chronic subclinical inflammation through an anti-inflammatory response, called therefore "anti-inflammaging". In the present review, we have focused our attention on the contrast between inflammaging and anti-inflammaging systems, by evaluating the role of cytokines and their impact on extreme longevity. Cytokines are the expression of a network involving genes, polymorphisms and environment, and are involved both in inflammation and anti-inflammation. We have described the role of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokines, of IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1 as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of lipoxin A4 and heat shock proteins as mediators of cytokines. We believe that if inflammaging is a key to understand aging, anti-inflammaging may be one of the secrets of longevity.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Anti-inflammaging; Cytokine; Inflammaging; Longevity

PMID:
26658771
DOI:
10.1007/s00005-015-0377-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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