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Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 1;62(5):631-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ990. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Prevention of Surgical Site Infections: Decontamination With Mupirocin Based on Preoperative Screening for Staphylococcus aureus Carriers or Universal Decontamination?

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Microbiology.
2
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht Department of Mathematics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Clinical Microbiology Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht.

Abstract

Perioperative decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers with mupirocin together with chlorhexidine body washing reduces the incidence of S. aureus surgical site infection. A targeted strategy, applied in S. aureus carriers only, is costly, and implementation may reduce effectiveness. Universal decolonization is more cost-effective but increases exposure of noncarriers to mupirocin and the risk of resistance to mupirocin in staphylococci. High-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus can emerge through horizontal gene transfer originating from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and through clonal transmission. The current evidence on the occurrence of high-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS, in combination with the results of mathematical modeling, strongly suggests that the increased selection of high-level mupirocin resistance in CoNS does not constitute an important risk for high-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus. Compared with a targeted strategy, universal decolonization seems associated with an equally low risk of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus.

KEYWORDS:

MRSA; decolonization; mupA; mupirocin; prophylaxis

PMID:
26658054
DOI:
10.1093/cid/civ990
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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