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Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb;127(2):1031-48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012. Epub 2015 Nov 22.

A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools.

Author information

1
Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Institute on Aging, McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address: ajwoods@ufl.edu.
2
University Medical Center, Dept. Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Germany.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, USA.
4
Social and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory and Developmental Disorders Program, Center for Health and Biological Science, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
5
Service of Interdisciplinary Neuromodulation, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
6
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, MD, USA.
7
Human Cortical Physiology and Neurorehabilitation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
8
Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Center for Clinical Research Learning, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard University, USA.
9
Experimental Psychology Lab, Center of excellence Hearing4all, Department for Psychology, Faculty for Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, Ammerländer Heerstr, Oldenburg, Germany.
10
Center for Mind & Brain and Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
11
MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative Care, New York, NY, USA.
12
Neuroscience Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia & Cognitive Neuroscience Section, IRCCS Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.
13
Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering (IBEB), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
14
Direttore Clinica Neurologica III, Università degli Studi di Milano, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan, Italy.
15
Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB) Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity (OHBA), Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
16
Neural Control of Movement Lab, Dept. Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
17
University Medical Center, Dept. Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Germany; Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany; Department of Neurology, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.

Abstract

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain.

KEYWORDS:

Design; Methodology review; Safety; Technical guide; Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS); Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES); Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)

PMID:
26652115
PMCID:
PMC4747791
DOI:
10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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