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Lancet. 2016 Apr 23;387(10029):1762-74. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00991-5. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Testicular germ cell tumours.

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Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark; International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disrupting Effects on Male Reproduction and Child Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA.
Department of Urology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Tsukinowa, Seta, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:
Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Department of Oncology, Haematology, Bone Marrow Transplantation with section Pneumology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.


Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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