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Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2016 Dec;41(6):825-833.

Effect of Ginkgo Leaf Tablets on the Pharmacokinetics of Amlodipine in Rats.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Rd, Shanghai, 200011, China.
2
Department of Pharmacy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200438, China.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.
4
Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Rd, Shanghai, 200011, China. nmxyyf@126.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Ginkgo leaf tablet (GLT) is an effective traditional Chinese multi-herbal formula, which is often combined with amlodipine for treating senile hypertension in clinic. The aim of this study was to study the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine after oral administration of amlodipine and GLT and to investigate the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions between GLT and amlodipine in rats.

METHODS:

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was developed for quantification of amlodipine in rat plasma. The accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity and recovery were all within an acceptable range. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: amlodipine group and amlodipine + GLT group. Plasma concentrations of amlodipine were determined at the designated time points after oral administration by using the developed LC-MS/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared. As ginkgolides A, ginkgolides B, bilobalide, quercetin and kaempferol were the main components of GLT, the effects of these ingredients in GLT on metabolism of amlodipine were further investigated in rat liver microsomes.

RESULTS:

The pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (C max), time to reach C max (T max), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), area under the first moment plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC) and elimination half-life (t 1/2), of amlodipine were significantly increased in amlodipine + GLT group, which suggested that GLT may influence the pharmacokinetic behavior after oral co-administration with amlodipine. Amlodipine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, so it was speculated that GLT may change the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine through modulating the metabolism of CYP3A4 enzymes. When ginkgolides B, bilobalide, or quercetin and amlodipine were co-incubated in the rat liver microsomes, the metabolic rate of amlodipine was prolonged to 533.1, 216.1 and 407.6 min, respectively, from 73.7 min.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggested that these components in GLT inhibit the metabolism of amlodipine. So it can be speculated that the herb-drug interactions between GLT and amlodipine resulted from inhibiting the metabolism of amlodipine by GLT when they were co-administered.

PMID:
26650374
DOI:
10.1007/s13318-015-0312-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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