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Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Feb;26(2):235-9. doi: 10.1111/sms.12628. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

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Department of Physical Therapy, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, MI, USA.


The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study.


Concussion; adolescents; head injury; minimum detectable change; normative values; reliability; screening; validity; visual

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