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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Feb;17(2):83-96. doi: 10.1038/nrm.2015.4. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

A-to-I editing of coding and non-coding RNAs by ADARs.

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The Wistar Institute, Department of Gene Expression and Regulation, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4268, USA.


Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference.

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