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Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr;44(4):724-33. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001479.

Effect of Perioperative Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Resuscitation Therapy on Outcomes Following Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Systematic Review.

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1Surgical Intensive Care Unit and Department of Anesthesiology, Heart Institute (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 2Department of Intensive Care Medicine, St George's Healthcare NHS Trust and St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom. 3Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Friedrich Schiller University Hospital, Jena University, Jena, Germany. 5Department of Cardiopneumology, Heart Institute (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.



To evaluate the effects of goal-directed therapy on outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


A prospective randomized controlled trial and an updated metaanalysis of randomized trials published from inception up to May 1, 2015.


Surgical ICU within a tertiary referral university-affiliated teaching hospital.


One hundred twenty-six high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery or valve repair.


Patients were randomized to a cardiac output-guided hemodynamic therapy algorithm (goal-directed therapy group, n = 62) or to usual care (n = 64). In the goal-directed therapy arm, a cardiac index of greater than 3 L/min/m was targeted with IV fluids, inotropes, and RBC transfusion starting from cardiopulmonary bypass and ending 8 hours after arrival to the ICU.


The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of 30-day mortality and major postoperative complications. Patients from the goal-directed therapy group received a greater median (interquartile range) volume of IV fluids than the usual care group (1,000 [625-1,500] vs 500 [500-1,000] mL; p < 0.001], with no differences in the administration of either inotropes or RBC transfusions. The primary outcome was reduced in the goal-directed therapy group (27.4% vs 45.3%; p = 0.037). The goal-directed therapy group had a lower occurrence rate of infection (12.9% vs 29.7%; p = 0.002) and low cardiac output syndrome (6.5% vs 26.6%; p = 0.002). We also observed lower ICU cumulative dosage of dobutamine (12 vs 19 mg/kg; p = 0.003) and a shorter ICU (3 [3-4] vs 5 [4-7] d; p < 0.001) and hospital length of stay (9 [8-16] vs 12 [9-22] d; p = 0.049) in the goal-directed therapy compared with the usual care group. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates (4.8% vs 9.4%, respectively; p = 0.492). The metaanalysis identified six trials and showed that, when compared with standard treatment, goal-directed therapy reduced the overall rate of complications (goal-directed therapy, 47/410 [11%] vs usual care, 92/415 [22%]; odds ratio, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.26-0.63]; p < 0.0001) and decreased the hospital length of stay (mean difference, -5.44 d; 95% CI, -9.28 to -1.60; p = 0.006) with no difference in postoperative mortality: 9 of 410 (2.2%) versus 15 of 415 (3.6%), odds ratio, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.26-1.47), and p = 0.27.


Goal-directed therapy using fluids, inotropes, and blood transfusion reduced 30-day major complications in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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