Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Factors. 2016 Feb;58(1):13-26. doi: 10.1177/0018720815614702. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

Author information

Department of Psychology, Cognitive and Engineering Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Department of Psychology, Cognitive and Engineering Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.



The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs).


Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed.


We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress.


Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance.


The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems.


Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations.


adaptive capacity; field study; range anxiety; resilience

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center