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Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Dec 7;36(4):585-95. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01005-15. Print 2016 Feb 15.

Atg13 Is Essential for Autophagy and Cardiac Development in Mice.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan nmizu@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp.

Abstract

Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation system by which cytoplasmic components are enclosed by autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes. Formation of the autophagosome requires a set of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Among these proteins, the ULK1 complex, which is composed of ULK1 (or ULK2), FIP200, Atg13, and Atg101, acts at an initial step. Previous studies showed that ULK1 and FIP200 also function in pathways other than autophagy. However, whether Atg13 and Atg101 act similarly to ULK1 and FIP200 remains unknown. In the present study, we generated Atg13 knockout mice. Like FIP200-deficient mice, Atg13-deficient mice die in utero, which is distinct from most other types of Atg-deficient mice. Atg13-deficient embryos show growth retardation and myocardial growth defects. In cultured fibroblasts, Atg13 deficiency blocks autophagosome formation at an upstream step. In addition, sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis is enhanced by deletion of Atg13 or FIP200, but not by other Atg proteins, as well as by simultaneous deletion of ULK1 and ULK2. These results suggest that Atg13 has both autophagic and nonautophagic functions and that the latter are essential for cardiac development and likely shared with FIP200 but not with ULK1/2.

PMID:
26644405
PMCID:
PMC4751695
DOI:
10.1128/MCB.01005-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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