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J Med Syst. 2016 Mar;40(3):51. doi: 10.1007/s10916-015-0407-z. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Reliable and Accurate Calcium Volume Measurement in Coronary Artery Using Intravascular Ultrasound Videos.

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Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.
Monitoring and Diagnostic Division, AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA.
Cardiovascular Medicine, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Department MAIA, Computer Vision Centre, Cerdanyola del Vallés, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Radiology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre, London, UK.
Vascular Diagnostic Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
CorVasc Vascular Laboratory, 8433 Harcourt Rd #100, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
UC Davis Vascular Centre, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
Monitoring and Diagnostic Division, AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA.
Point-of-Care Devices, Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA, USA.
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Idaho (Affl.), Moscow, ID, USA.


Quantitative assessment of calcified atherosclerotic volume within the coronary artery wall is vital for cardiac interventional procedures. The goal of this study is to automatically measure the calcium volume, given the borders of coronary vessel wall for all the frames of the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) video. Three soft computing fuzzy classification techniques were adapted namely Fuzzy c-Means (FCM), K-means, and Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) for automated segmentation of calcium regions and volume computation. These methods were benchmarked against previously developed threshold-based method. IVUS image data sets (around 30,600 IVUS frames) from 15 patients were collected using 40 MHz IVUS catheter (Atlantis® SR Pro, Boston Scientific®, pullback speed of 0.5 mm/s). Calcium mean volume for FCM, K-means, HMRF and threshold-based method were 37.84 ± 17.38 mm(3), 27.79 ± 10.94 mm(3), 46.44 ± 19.13 mm(3) and 35.92 ± 16.44 mm(3) respectively. Cross-correlation, Jaccard Index and Dice Similarity were highest between FCM and threshold-based method: 0.99, 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.95 + 0.02 respectively. Student's t-test, z-test and Wilcoxon-test are also performed to demonstrate consistency, reliability and accuracy of the results. Given the vessel wall region, the system reliably and automatically measures the calcium volume in IVUS videos. Further, we validated our system against a trained expert using scoring: K-means showed the best performance with an accuracy of 92.80%. Out procedure and protocol is along the line with method previously published clinically.


Accuracy; Atherosclerosis; Coronary arteries; IVUS; Interventional cardiology; Performance; Reliability; Soft computing; calcium volume

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