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J Clin Invest. 2016 Jan;126(1):266-81. doi: 10.1172/JCI83475. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Serum amyloid A impairs the antiinflammatory properties of HDL.


HDL from healthy humans and lean mice inhibits palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation; however, the effect of the inflammatory state on the functional properties of HDL on adipocytes is unknown. Here, we found that HDL from mice injected with AgNO3 fails to inhibit palmitate-induced inflammation and reduces cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, HDL isolated from obese mice with moderate inflammation and humans with systemic lupus erythematosus had similar effects. Since serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in HDL increase with inflammation, we investigated whether elevated SAA is a causal factor in HDL dysfunction. HDL from AgNO3-injected mice lacking Saa1.1 and Saa2.1 exhibited a partial restoration of antiinflammatory and cholesterol efflux properties in adipocytes. Conversely, incorporation of SAA into HDL preparations reduced antiinflammatory properties but not to the same extent as HDL from AgNO3-injected mice. SAA-enriched HDL colocalized with cell surface-associated extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes, suggesting impaired access to the plasma membrane. Enzymatic digestion of proteoglycans in the ECM restored the ability of SAA-containing HDL to inhibit palmitate-induced inflammation and cholesterol efflux. Collectively, these findings indicate that inflammation results in a loss of the antiinflammatory properties of HDL on adipocytes, which appears to partially result from the SAA component of HDL binding to cell-surface proteoglycans, thereby preventing access of HDL to the plasma membrane.

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