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J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1989 Jul-Aug;18(4):279-87.

Tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine use during pregnancy.

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1
University of Kansas School of Nursing, Kansas City.

Abstract

Research on the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine on the outcomes of pregnancy is reviewed. The strength of the evidence on the effects of these substances is varied, ranging from some clear and consistent findings for smoking to inconsistent findings for caffeine. Evidence regarding alcohol is strong in some areas and less consistent in others. The implications for clinical practice, particularly that effects vary with both the timing and the amount of the substances used, are discussed.

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