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Circ J. 2016;80(2):346-53. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-15-1051. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

Early Recurrence After Pulmonary Vein Isolation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation With Different Ablation Technologies - Prospective Comparison of Radiofrequency vs. Second-Generation Cryoballoon Ablation.

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Cardiology Division, Cardiovascular Center, Tsuchiura Kyodo Hospital.



Inflammation plays a prominent role in the etiology of the early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (ERAF). We prospectively compared the proportion of ERAF and time-course patterns of biomarkers between radiofrequency (RF) and cryoballoon (CB) ablation.


We enrolled 82 consecutive paroxysmal AF patients undergoing pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, performed with either a 28-mm 2nd-generation CB and 3-min freeze technique or point-by-point RF ablation. Each group had 41 patients. In the RF group, all PVs were successfully isolated with 28.9 ± 6.5 min of RF delivery. In the CB group, a mean of 5.3 ± 1.4 applications/patient was delivered. The proportion of ERAF was similar between the groups. The time-course patterns significantly differed between the groups for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value (P=0.006) and myocardial injury markers (P<0.0001). Greater myocardial injury was observed in the CB than in the RF group (P<0.0001), whereas the peak hs-CRP value was comparable between the groups. The 2-day post-procedure hs-CRP value was the sole factor correlating with ERAF as identified by the multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 1.697; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-2.865; P=0.048) in the RF, but not the CB group.


The proportion of ERAF was comparable after RF and 2nd-generation CB ablation. Despite CB ablation exhibiting greater myocardial injury than RF ablation, the inflammatory responses were comparable between the groups. The inflammatory response extent predicted ERAF post-RF ablation but not post-CB ablation.

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