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Cell. 2015 Dec 3;163(6):1360-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.004.

Gut Microbiota Orchestrates Energy Homeostasis during Cold.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU), Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Diabetes Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 2Centre for BioMedical Imaging (CIBM), Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 3Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
  • 4Division of Radiology, Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 5Institute for Molecular Systems Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • 6Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU), Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Diabetes Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Biosciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address: mirko.trajkovski@unige.ch.

Abstract

Microbial functions in the host physiology are a result of the microbiota-host co-evolution. We show that cold exposure leads to marked shift of the microbiota composition, referred to as cold microbiota. Transplantation of the cold microbiota to germ-free mice is sufficient to increase insulin sensitivity of the host and enable tolerance to cold partly by promoting the white fat browning, leading to increased energy expenditure and fat loss. During prolonged cold, however, the body weight loss is attenuated, caused by adaptive mechanisms maximizing caloric uptake and increasing intestinal, villi, and microvilli lengths. This increased absorptive surface is transferable with the cold microbiota, leading to altered intestinal gene expression promoting tissue remodeling and suppression of apoptosis-the effect diminished by co-transplanting the most cold-downregulated strain Akkermansia muciniphila during the cold microbiota transfer. Our results demonstrate the microbiota as a key factor orchestrating the overall energy homeostasis during increased demand.

PMID:
26638070
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.004
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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