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Cell Stem Cell. 2015 Dec 3;17(6):651-662. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2015.11.012.

Metabolic Reprogramming of Stem Cell Epigenetics.

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Stem Cell Metabolism and Regenerative Medicine Group, Basic & Clinical Myology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Paul D. Coverdell Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, National Institute of Arthritis, and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20829, USA. Electronic address:


For many years, stem cell metabolism was viewed as a byproduct of cell fate status rather than an active regulatory mechanism; however, there is now a growing appreciation that metabolic pathways influence epigenetic changes associated with lineage commitment, specification, and self-renewal. Here we review how metabolites generated during glycolytic and oxidative processes are utilized in enzymatic reactions leading to epigenetic modifications and transcriptional regulation. We discuss how "metabolic reprogramming" contributes to global epigenetic changes in the context of naive and primed pluripotent states, somatic reprogramming, and hematopoietic and skeletal muscle tissue stem cells, and we discuss the implications for regenerative medicine.

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