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Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2015 Nov-Dec;29(6):421-4. doi: 10.2500/ajra.2015.29.4244.

Long-term postoperative azithromycin in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: A randomized clinical trial.

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Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department, Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is recognized as a common disease that imposes a big burden on the health system worldwide. There is ongoing evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of long-term macrolide in the management of patients with CRS.


The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of long-term consumption of low-dose azithromycin after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.


Sixty-six patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The subjects received the standard conventional treatment (fluticasone nasal spray plus normal saline solution irrigation) or the conventional treatment plus 250 mg of azithromycin on a daily basis for 3 months. Evaluation was made based on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) immediately before surgery and 3 months after surgery.


The intervention group showed a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 scores after the treatment and a higher percentage change after 3 months of therapy compared with the control group. A significant correlation was found between the percentage change of SNOT-22 scores and smoking in the placebo group. Lund-Mackay scores, patient age, and the duration of symptoms had no significant correlation with the percentage change.


Treatment with long-term low-dose azithromycin in combination with the conventional therapy could statistically reduce the recurrence rate of CRS symptoms after functional endoscopic sinus surgery, but there was not sufficient evidence to support clinical significance of azithromycin at the investigated dose. Further larger scale trials, along with a longer follow-up period, is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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