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Front Immunol. 2015 Nov 25;6:593. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00593. eCollection 2015.

Clinical Outlook for Type-1 and FOXP3(+) T Regulatory Cell-Based Therapy.

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Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (TIGET) , Milan , Italy.
Department of Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine , Palo Alto, CA , USA.


T regulatory cells (Tregs) are subsets of T lymphocytes specialized in modulating antigen-specific immune responses in vivo. Hence, Tregs represent an ideal therapeutic tool to control detrimental immune reactions. Based on solid pre-clinical results, investigators started testing the safety and efficacy of Treg-based therapies in humans. Despite promising results, a number of issues remain to be solved. We will discuss the results obtained from clinical trials and the challenges and risks we are facing in the further development of Treg-based therapies.


FOXP3; IL-10; T regulatory cells; T regulatory type 1 cells; Treg-based therapy; gene transfer; tolerance

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