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J Proteome Res. 2016 Jan 4;15(1):48-67. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00463. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

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Normandy University , F-14032 Caen, France.
Normandy University , UMR BOREA MNHN, UPMC, UCBN, CNRS-7208, IRD-207, F-14032 Caen, France.
Normandy University , GREYC, UMR CNRS 6072, F-14032 Caen, France.
UPMC, CNRS, FR2424, ABiMS, Station Biologique, 29680 Roscoff, France.
Post Genomic Platform PROTEOGEN, Normandy University , SF ICORE 4206, F-14032 Caen, France.
Center for Marine Research, "Ruder Boskovic" Institute , HR-52210 Rovinj, Croatia.
Univ. Grenoble Alpes , iRTSV-BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
CEA, iRTSV-BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
INSERM, BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France.


Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones.


brain; cuttlefish; egg-laying; neurohormones; neuropeptidome; transcriptome

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