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Diabetes. 2016 Mar;65(3):794-802. doi: 10.2337/db15-0322. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Targeted Deep Sequencing in Multiple-Affected Sibships of European Ancestry Identifies Rare Deleterious Variants in PTPN22 That Confer Risk for Type 1 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
2
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
3
Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
4
Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA.
5
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL patcon@ufl.edu.

Abstract

Despite finding more than 40 risk loci for type 1 diabetes (T1D), the causative variants and genes remain largely unknown. Here, we sought to identify rare deleterious variants of moderate-to-large effects contributing to T1D. We deeply sequenced 301 protein-coding genes located in 49 previously reported T1D risk loci in 70 T1D cases of European ancestry. These cases were selected from putatively high-risk families that had three or more siblings diagnosed with T1D at early ages. A cluster of rare deleterious variants in PTPN22 was identified, including two novel frameshift mutations (ss538819444 and rs371865329) and two missense variants (rs74163663 and rs56048322). Genotyping in 3,609 T1D families showed that rs56048322 was significantly associated with T1D and that this association was independent of the T1D-associated common variant rs2476601. The risk allele at rs56048322 affects splicing of PTPN22, resulting in the production of two alternative PTPN22 transcripts and a novel isoform of LYP (the protein encoded by PTPN22). This isoform competes with the wild-type LYP for binding to CSK and results in hyporesponsiveness of CD4(+) T cells to antigen stimulation in T1D subjects. These findings demonstrate that in addition to common variants, rare deleterious variants in PTPN22 exist and can affect T1D risk.

PMID:
26631741
PMCID:
PMC4764149
[Available on 2017-03-01]
DOI:
10.2337/db15-0322
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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