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Annu Rev Genet. 2015;49:461-84. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-112414-054911.

Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Human Cardiac Reprogramming and Differentiation in Regenerative Medicine.

Burridge PW1,2,3,4,5, Sharma A1,2,3, Wu JC1,2,3.

Author information

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute.
Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305.
Department of Pharmacology.
Center for Pharmacogenomics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611; email: ,


Regeneration or replacement of lost cardiomyocytes within the heart has the potential to revolutionize cardiovascular medicine. Numerous methodologies have been used to achieve this aim, including the engraftment of bone marrow- and heart-derived cells as well as the identification of modulators of adult cardiomyocyte proliferation. Recently, the conversion of human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and induced cardiomyocyte-like cells has transformed potential approaches toward this goal, and the engraftment of cardiac progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells into patients is now feasible. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic control of human cardiogenesis, cardiac differentiation, and the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to cardiomyocytes. We also cover genetic programs for inducing the proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes and discuss the genetic state of cells used in cardiac regenerative medicine.


cardiomyocyte; developmental biology; embryonic stem cells; epigenetics; heart; induced pluripotent stem cells

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